Sunday, April 11, 2010



Price for license:

1. Class D = RM800
2. Class B2 = RM265
3. Class D+B2 = RM1000
4. Add class (B2 – D) = RM700

also provided

*Transportation will be provided


Address :

Lot 1717, Bt 21, Kg Bukit
Katong,Rim, 77000 Jasin, Melaka.

inquiries :

En. Faizal : 016-2492302
Ms. Farhana : 014-3680898


Saturday, April 10, 2010

Telecommunications & Networking (ITE-Chapter 4)

Definition of Telecommunications
"is the sending of information in any form from one place to another using electronic or light-emitting media."

Definition of Data Communications

"describes the transmitting and receiving of data over communication links between one or more computer systems and variety of input/output terminals."

Why Telecommunications is Important?
  • End users need to communicate electronically to succeed in today's global information society.

  • Enhance collaboration and communication among individuals both inside and outside an organization via internet.

  • Need to electronically exchange data and information with other end users, customers, suppliers and other organizations.

Applications of Telecommunication

Enterprise Collaboration Systems=
"use telecommunications networks to support telecommunication, coordination and collaboration among the members of business teams and workgroups."

Electronic Commerce Systems
"support the buying and selling the products, services and information over the internet and other computer networks."

Internal Business Systems
"depend on variety of computer networks to support a company's business operation."

Telecommunication Network Model
  1. Terminal= any input/output device that uses telecommunications networks to transmit or receive data.

  2. Telecommunication Processors= support data transmission and reception between terminals computers.[modem, multiplexer, front-end-processors]

  3. Telecommunications Channels and Media= part of telecommunication network that connect the message source with the message receiver.

  4. Computers= computer of all the sizes and types are interconnect by telecommunications networks so that they can carry out their information processing assignment.

  5. Telecommunication Control Software= consists of program that control telecommunications activities and manage the functions of telecommunication networks.
Types of Telecommunication Networks

Local Area Networks(LANs)
= connect computers and other information devices within a limited physical area, such as an office, manufacturing plant and other work site.

Wide Area Networks(WANs)
= telecommunication network that cover large geographical area or spans a large geographical area.

Internetworks= the linking of separate networks, each each of its retain its own identity into an interconnected network.(internetwork processors= switches, routers, hubs or gateways.)

= are design to be open, but secure, internal networks whose web browsing software provides easy point-and-click access by end users to multimedia information on internal websites.(MARA)

Extranets= are networks that link some of the internet resources of a company with other organizations and individuals (authorized) (credit card)

Client Server Network= Client- on a network, any computer that can access the server.
Server- a high capacity, high speed computer with a hard disk- control all some procedures on a network.

Telecommunication Network Topologies

Topology= the way in which components of a network are connected. 3 basic topologies used in WANs and LANs :

Star Network= A network topology in which all computers and other devices are connected to a central hub.

Ring Network= A network topology in which all computers are linked by a close loop in a manner that passes data in one direction from one computer to another.

Bus Network
= Network topology linking a number of computers by a single circuit with all message broadcast to entire network.

Transmission Mode


  • Transmit one character at a time, each character preceded by a start bit and followed by a stop bit and error check bit.

  • Used for low-speed transmission rates.


  • Transmit group of characters at a time, the beginning and end of character determine by the timing circuitry of a communication processors.

  • Used by large computer to transmit huge volume of data at high speed.
Data communication lines can be connected bytwo types of configuration:

Point-to-Point Lines

  • Each terminal (sender and receiver) is directly connected by their own line.

  • More expensive than multi-drop lines.

  • Are used if there will be continuous connections between a computer and aterminal or other computer system.

Multi-drop Lines

  • Connect many devices (not just sending and receiving device).

  • Cheaper than point-to-point line because each line is shared by many terminal.

  • Communication Processors such as multiplexers and concentrators are used to help many terminals share the same line